Refractive Error Status In Bayelsa State, Nigeria

Koroye-Egbe, A., Ovenseri-Ogbomo, G. O. and Adio, A. O.


Refractive errors affect the whole spectrum of the population without regard to age, gender, race and ethnic group. Uncorrected refractive errors have severe consequences for the individual, family and society. Records show that no study documenting the distribution of refractive errors in Bayelsa State had been carried out. Records of patients who presented between January 2004 and October 2005 in the government-subsidized eye clinic of the Niger-Delta University Teaching Hospital, Okolobiri for refractive error services were reviewed. Myopia was defined as ≥ -0.50DS; hyperopia as ≥ +1.00DS while astigmatism was defined as ≥ -0.25DC. Emmetropia was defined as a spherical power of -0.25D to +0.75D. Results of the right eye were used for analysis. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences(SPSS) version 10. In this retrospective study, a total of 654 patients fitted the inclusion criteria. There were 319 males and 335 females (48.78% and 51.22% respectively) with an age range of 5 – 86 years. Mean age was 42.18±13.1 (95% CI = 41.17 – 43.19) years. Significant refractive error was observed in 355 cases (54.28%) while 299 (45.72%) were emmetropic. Of the 355 with refractive error, 181 (50.99%) were male and 174 (49.01%) were females. Astigmatism was the commonest refractive error (n=162, 45.63%) followed by myopia (n=113, 51.83%) and hyperopia (n=80, 22.54%). The ranges of refractive power were as follows: astigmatism, -0.25DC to -1.75DC; Myopia, -0.50D to -9.00D and hyperopia, +1.00DS to +11.00DS. More males had hyperopia and myopia while more females had astigmatism. Presbyopia, as indicated by the use of near addition, was present in 490 (74.92%) of the subjects. The results can be used for planning self-sustaining refractive error services in the state.

Keywords: Emmetropia, Myopia, Hyperopia, Astigmatism, Presbyopia.

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